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Visitor Pattern in JavaScript (Live Playground)

The Visitor pattern is a behavioral design pattern that allows you to separate an algorithm from the object structure it operates on. This pattern enables you to add new operations to existing object structures without modifying the classes, promoting maintainability and extensibility in your code. In this tutorial, we'll explore the Visitor pattern in JavaScript, including its use cases, implementation, and benefits.

Why Use the Visitor Pattern?

The Visitor pattern is useful when you want to:

  1. Separate an algorithm from the object structure it operates on.
  2. Add new operations to existing object structures without modifying their classes.
  3. Make your code more maintainable and extensible by decoupling functionality from the object structure.

Implementing the Visitor Pattern in JavaScript

Here's an example of how to implement the Visitor pattern using JavaScript classes:

// Element interface
class Element {
accept(visitor) {}

// Concrete elements
class ConcreteElementA extends Element {
accept(visitor) {

operationA() {
console.log('ConcreteElementA operation');

class ConcreteElementB extends Element {
accept(visitor) {

operationB() {
console.log('ConcreteElementB operation');

// Visitor interface
class Visitor {
visitConcreteElementA(concreteElementA) {}
visitConcreteElementB(concreteElementB) {}

// Concrete visitor
class ConcreteVisitor extends Visitor {
visitConcreteElementA(concreteElementA) {
console.log('Visiting ConcreteElementA');

visitConcreteElementB(concreteElementB) {
console.log('Visiting ConcreteElementB');

// Client code
const elementA = new ConcreteElementA();
const elementB = new ConcreteElementB();
const visitor = new ConcreteVisitor();

elementA.accept(visitor); // Output: Visiting ConcreteElementA, ConcreteElementA operation
elementB.accept(visitor); // Output: Visiting ConcreteElementB, ConcreteElementB operation

In this example, the Element class represents the element interface, and ConcreteElementA and ConcreteElementB are concrete element classes. The Visitor class represents the visitor interface, and ConcreteVisitor is a concrete visitor class. The client code creates element and visitor objects and invokes the accept method on the elements, passing the visitor as an argument.

Live Playground, Try it Yourself

Benefits of the Visitor Pattern

Implementing the Visitor pattern in your JavaScript projects offers several benefits:

  1. Maintainability: The Visitor pattern separates algorithms from object structures, making your code more maintainable and easier to modify.
  2. Extensibility: The Visitor pattern allows you to easily add new operations to existing object structures without modifying their classes, providing extensibility in handling various scenarios.
  3. Decoupling: The Visitor pattern decouples functionality from the object structure, making your code cleaner and more modular.


In summary, the Visitor pattern is a valuable tool in JavaScript development that can help you create maintainable, extensible code. By understanding and implementing this pattern, you can enhance your web development skills and create more robust applications.